I’ve noticed a meme that seems to have been going around in various blogs of folks who continue to indulge in the long since dead REST vs. SOAP discussion. This meme is that (i) you don’t want or need an interface definition language if you are building a RESTful Web Service and (ii) an interface definition language for RESTful Web Services has to look something like CORBA IDL or WSDL.

You can find examples of this kind of thinking in blog posts like Steve Vinoski’s IDLs vs. Human Documentation post excerpted below

Note that Patrick mostly talks about data schemas, whereas my posting talks only of interface definition languages. These are two very different things, which I’ve noted in comments on his blog. In a reply comment he said they’re both metadata, which is true, but still, they’re very separable. REST depends heavily on data definitions, but it doesn’t require specialized interface definitions because it promotes a uniform interface. For data definition REST relies on and promotes media/MIME types, and the standardization of such data definitions is critical to allowing independently-developed consumers and providers to interact correctly. I doubt Patrick and I really disagree on this last point.

and Ryan Tomayko’s Speaking of, "lying through their teeth..." also excerpted below

The WS-* folks have historically been obsessed with making things easy, usually for an imaginary business analyst who is nowhere near as technically adept as they. The REST folks, on the other hand, seem much more interested in keeping the entire stack simple, and for everyone involved.

This difference in priorities (easy vs. simple) often manifests itself in arguments about technological issues on the surface. Take the never ending debate about whether REST needs a description language like WSDL; which, incidentally, Sanjiva is largely responsible for. If building systems in your world can be made easier with the addition of a description language, then WSDL probably makes a lot of sense. If, however, building distributed systems in your world is a tediously hard pain in the ass whether you have these cockamamie description files or not, well, then you fight to keep the system as simple as possible by reducing the number of actors, dependencies, and concepts to an absolute minimum.

Let’s start with Steve Vinoski’s post. Steve is right to point out that there is a difference between data schemas and interface definitional languages. When building services with WS-*, you have a WSDL to describe your methods & expected inputs/outputs and XSD schema(s) to describe the schemas for said inputs/outputs. When building a RESTful Web Service, the need for both of these documents does not go away regardless of how often you repeat the phrase “uniform interface”.

Steve argues that instead of using an XML schema to describe your document formats, you should rely on registered MIME types. The benefit of this is that you’ve broadened your horizon from thinking that the only payload for your Web service can be XML documents. The WS-* folks had to jump through lots of mental hoops to try and get non-XML data to fit in their model with wacky schemes like SOAP with Attachments (SwA), Direct Internet Message Encapsulation (DIME), WS-Attachments, Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism (MTOM) and XML-binary Optimized Packaging (XOP). All of this complexity existed because of the fundamental design of WS-* is that all data going in and out of a SOAP Web service must either be an XML document or modelled as an XML document. 

However this doesn’t mean everything is plain sailing if you stick to only using registered IANA MIME types as the payloads of your Web services. What happens when you have a document format that doesn’t have a registered MIME type? You have two choices, you can either co-opt an existing MIME type and use it as an envelope format as Google has done with GData or you can use your own custom XML format as Facebook has done with the Facebook REST API. In both cases, it would be useful for developers if your data schema is documented either in prose or via some XML schema language. This doesn’t require an interface definition language like WSDL nor does it require a schema definition language like XSD.  

On the other hand, how does a client application discover your application’s service end points? Today, when you point your browser to my blog at http://www.25hoursaday.com/weblog, your browser automatically detects that I have an RSS feed. When you  point Windows Live Writer to a weblog, it automatically detects how to post and edit blog posts programmatically if your weblog software supports the Atom Publishing Protocol.

In the case of the RSS feed, your browser knows I have one by looking at the link element pointing to my RSS feed. The browser knows what to do with the file via the MIME type and there is no interface to be defined because the only contract of an RSS feed is that it should support HTTP GET. On the flip side an Atom service document, which is what Windows Live Writer reads to learn about your blog describes, describes the various service end points (i.e. collections) as well as the accepted inputs/outputs (either as MIME types or the hardcoded string ‘entry’ for Atom entries since they don’t have a MIME type).

The examples of Atom service documents and link elements in HTML, highlight that there is real world value in describing the interfaces to your RESTful Web Service. In addition, Atom service documents show that you can define an interface definition language for Web services without resorting to reinventing CORBA IDL (i.e. WSDL). So I respectfully disagree with Ryan Tomayko…just because my life is made easier with a service description language doesn’t make WSDL a good idea.

Now playing: Dead Prez - Hell Yeah (Pimp the System)


 

Thursday, January 17, 2008 4:52:32 AM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
IMHO this is the single biggest barrier with using REST in any sort of enterprise way. When working with REST interfaces, I feel like I working with a raw C static library and my only source of navigation is the developers crappy documentation.

Look at .Net, a lot of the power stems from the managed code's header information. Automagic interrogation is a beautiful thing. Have a new object but no documentation? First thing you do is fire up VS and open object browser, then maybe even Reflector.

OAuth has published a first draft of OAuth Discovery. http://oauth.googlecode.com/svn/spec/discovery/1.0/drafts/1/spec.html

Describes exposed methods as fully qualified URIs.

Queue the merry-go-round circus music (in regards to WSDL and SOAPActions).
Johnny Fry
Thursday, January 17, 2008 9:10:24 AM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
okay, well I don't think I need an interface definition language so much as I need clear documentation. However if there was an Interface definition language I would want it not to describe the methods and formats taken by a URI, but rather the relationships between URIS in a service. And I guess that turns out to be a graphing language of some sort.

But currently the only thing WSDL gives me is a big complicated thing to read.
Bryan
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