In the past year both Google and Facebook have released the remote procedure call (RPC) technologies that are used for communication between servers within their data centers as Open Source projects.
Facebook Thrift allows you to define data types and service interfaces in a simple definition file. Taking that file as input, the compiler generates code to be used to easily build RPC clients and servers that communicate seamlessly across programming languages. It supports the following programming languages; C++, Java, Python, PHP and Ruby.
Google Protocol Buffers allows you to define data types and service interfaces in a simple definition file. Taking that file as input, the compiler generates code to be used to easily build RPC clients and servers that communicate seamlessly across programming languages. It supports the following programming languages; C++, Java and Python.
That’s interesting. Didn’t Steve Vinoski recently claim that RPC and it's descendants are "fundamentally flawed"? If so, why are Google and Facebook not only using RPC but proud enough of their usage of yet another distributed object RPC technology based on binary protocols that they are Open Sourcing them? Didn’t they get the memo that everyone is now on the REST + JSON/XML bandwagon (preferrably AtomPub)?
In truth, Google is on the REST + XML band wagon. Google has the Google Data APIs (GData) which is a consistent set of RESTful APIs for accessing data from Google's services based on the Atom Publishing Protocol aka RFC 5023. And even Facebook has a set of plain old XML over HTTP APIs (POX/HTTP) which they incorrectly refer to as the Facebook REST API.
So what is the story here?
It is all about coupling and how much control you have over the distributed end points. On the Web where you have little to no control over who talks to your servers or what technology they use, you want to utilize flexible technologies that make no assumptions about either end of the communication. This is where RESTful XML-based Web services shine. However when you have tight control over the service end points (e.g. if they are all your servers running in your data center) then you can use more optimized communications technologies that add a layer of tight coupling to your system. An example of the kind of tight coupling you have to live with is that Facebook Thrift requires specific versions of g++ and Java if you plan to talk to it using code written in either language and you can’t talk to it from a service written in C#.
In general, the Web is about openness and loose coupling. Binary protocols that require specific programming languages and runtimes are the exact opposite of this. However inside your Web service where you control both ends of the pipe, you can optimize the interaction between your services and simplify development by going with a binary RPC based technology. More than likely different parts of your system are already doing this anyway (e.g. memcached uses a binary protocol to talk between cache instances, SQL Server uses TDS as the communications protocol between the database and it's clients, etc).
Always remember to use the right tool for the job. One size doesn’t fit all when it comes to technology decisions.
- Exposing a WCF Service With Multiple Bindings and Endpoints – Keith Elder describes how Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) supports multiple bindings that enable developers to expose their services in a variety of ways. A developer can create a service once and then expose it to support net.tcp:// or http:// and various versions of http:// (Soap1.1, Soap1.2, WS*, JSON, etc). This can be useful if a service crosses boundaries between the intranet and the Internet.
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