The third in my semi-regular series of guidelines for working with W3C XML Schema for is now up. The article is entitled XML Schema Design Patterns: Is Complex Type Derivation Unnecessary? and the article is excerpted below for those who may not have the time to read the entire article


W3C XML Schema (WXS) possesses a number of features that mimic object oriented concepts, including type derivation and polymorphism. However real world experience has shown that these features tend to complicate schemas, may have subtle interactions that lead tricky problems, and can often be replaced by other features of WXS. In this article I explore both derivation by restriction and derivation by extension of complex types showing the pros and cons of both techniques, as well as showing alternatives to achieving the same results


As usage of XML and XML schema languages has become more widespread, two primary usage scenarios have developed around XML document validation and XML schemas.

  1. Describing and enforcing the contract between producers and consumers of XML documents: ...
  2. Creating the basis for processing and storing typed data represented as XML documents: ...


Based on the current technological landscape the complex type derivation features of WXS may add more problems than they solve in the two most commmon schema use cases. For validation scenarios, derivation by restriction is of marginal value, while derivation by extension is a good way to create modularity as well as encourage reuse. Care must however be taken to consider the ramifications of the various type substitutability features of WXS (xsi:type and substitution groups) when using derivation by extension in scenarios revolving around document validation.

Currently processing and storage of strongly typed XML data is primarily the province of conventional OOP languages and relational databases respectively. This means that certain features of WXS such as derivation by restriction (and to a lesser extent derivation by extension) cause an impedance mismatch between the type system used to describe strongly typed XML and the mechanisms used for processing and storing said XML. Eventually when technologies like XQuery become widespread for processing typed XML and support for XML and W3C XML Schema is integrated into mainstream database products this impedance mismatch will not be important. Until then complex type derivation should be carefully evaluated before being used in situations where W3C XML Schema is primarily being used as a mechanism to create type annotated XML infosets.


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